Clear the shanty towns
The local authority evicts the residents of the shanty towns and the bulldozes the area. This is because the conditions have become so bad.
This can only be done if the shanty town is small. Even then, the evicted residents just set up elsewhere.
Upgrade the shanty towns
The local authority steps in and improves the shanty towns, by installing new water and sanitation services.
This process is very expensive and therefore is usually done cheaply and not very well.
Site and service schemes
Land ownership is given to residents and the local authorities then install the necessary services, like piped water and sewage systems.
This is good in keeping the community together, but the improvements then encourage more people to move here.
Build a new town
Building a new town to the north of Karachi would allow slum dwellers and future immigrants to move here and improve their living conditions. Jobs are created as industry is promised tax breaks if they set up here.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to know whether or not people will move here.
Self help schemes
Individuals and communities, with help from the scheme, install, maintain and improve their own water and sanitation services. As part of the scheme the construction costs of this process are kept down.
This is an effective solution because individuals and communities take responsibility for the services, ensuring that they are maintained properly.